Conceptualizing the sports tourist Chapter Questions

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Conceptualizing the sports tourist

1.    The book aims to explore the concept of sports tourism in ________ detail. Answer: greater

2.    What makes the sports tourist ________ is examined in this chapter. Answer: unique

3.    The fusion of two complex terms, ‘sport’ and ‘tourism,’ results in the ________ nature of sports tourism. Answer: problematic

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4.    The interaction of the participant with the activity and place is considered a significant factor in ________ the sports tourist. Answer: conceptualizing

5.    Before conceptualizing sports tourism, it is essential to understand sport and tourism as ________ spheres. Answer: separate

6.    The prologue offered preliminary comments on the use of the term ‘sports ________.’ Answer: tourism

7.    The book intends to provide a ________ understanding of sports tourism. Answer: fuller

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8.    Sport and tourism both defy ________ definition. Answer: simple

9.    Official definitions of sport and tourism can vary and ________ through time. Answer: change

10.                    The meanings people derive from the concepts of sport and tourism ________. Answer: vary

 

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Definitions of Sports

1.    Attempts to define sport have engaged the energies of many _________. Answer: writers

2.    Given the difficulties of producing a precise and universally accepted definition, some have suggested that the pursuit of defining sport is ________. Answer: fruitless

3.    The concept of sport defies ___________. Answer: definition

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4.    Sport may be defined on the basis of pursuits satisfying key characteristics such as vigorous physical activity and/or physical skill, competition, and ________. Answer: codified rules

5.    Activities that involve vigorous physical activity, competition, and codified rules are often considered as ________. Answer: sport

6.    Swimming, rambling, and jogging are examples of activities that are regarded as sport, even though they may not involve ___________. Answer: formal competitive lines and rules

7.    The issue of ‘context’ may be important when distinguishing between sport and ____________. Answer: physical recreation

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8.    The historical development of sport has been influenced by ____________. Answer: modern industrial society and Victorian public schools

9.    In the past, some sports involved cruelty to animals, which is now seen as completely at odds with the ideals of _________. Answer: sport

10.                    Field sports like hunting and shooting, which were once key sporting pursuits, are now considered ________. Answer: marginal

11.                    The term ‘sport’ has been socially constructed and has acquired different meanings at different times in its _______. Answer: historical development

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12.                    Different societies may have different conceptions of sport, leading to varying ________ of the term. Answer: definitions

13.                    The Council of Europe defines sport as “all forms of physical activity which… aims at improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships, or obtaining results in competition at all levels.” This definition is considered ___________. Answer: wide-ranging and inclusive

14.                    The wide-ranging, inclusive definition of sport includes not only formal activities but also non-competitive recreational activities with _________. Answer: tourism potential

15.                    A related notion to the definition of sport is a definition of the ___________. Answer: sports participant

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16.                    The sports participant is generally accepted to involve those who ________ take part in sport. Answer: actively

17.                    Spectators who watch live sports make an important contribution to the social institution of sport and are equally motivated in their commitment to sport as the ___________. Answer: active participant

18.                    Spectators have had an important influence on the nature and development of sport, influencing both how the sport is played and the _________. Answer: environment

19.                    Sports with significant numbers of spectators have developed to accommodate them, which has affected both the way the sport is played and the ________. Answer: environment

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20.                    Spectators have provided much of the wealth that has enabled sport to develop, emphasizing their role in the ___________. Answer: growth of sports

21.                    Not including spectators in any consideration of sports participation would seriously reduce the _________ of the analysis. Answer: scope

22.                    The significant number of spectators who travel is an important aspect of __________. Answer: sports tourism

23.                    The nature of sports tourism encompasses both active participants and ____________. Answer: spectators

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24.                    The presence of spectators has contributed to the _________ of sports. Answer: development

25.                    Spectators have played a significant role in the financial ________ of sports. Answer: support

 

Definitions of Tourism

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1.    According to Ryan (1991), tourism can be defined as a study of the demand for and supply of accommodation and supportive services for those staying away from home, and the resultant patterns of __________, income creation, and employment. Answer: expenditure

2.    Some definitions of tourism emphasize its role as an __________ activity or industry. Answer: economic

3.    According to Hay (1989), tourism involves a trip for __________ purposes and is a process concerned with the redistribution of economic resources. Answer: leisure

4.    Tourist organizations often provide technical definitions that specify minimum and maximum lengths of stay and strict ‘purpose of visit categories’ to __________ tourism from other forms of travel for statistical purposes. Answer: isolate

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5.    The major distinction between most definitions of tourism is whether or not they include __________. Answer: day trips

6.    Including day trips in the definition of tourism introduces definitional issues related to the minimum __________ and minimum distance traveled away from home. Answer: length of time

7.    The Scottish Tourist Board defines a leisure day trip as one involving more than __________ hours and focusing on a specific activity. Answer: three

8.    According to the British Tourist Authority (1981), tourism involves the temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and their activities during the stay at these destinations, including __________ and excursions. Answer: day visits

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9.    Standeven and Tomlinson (1994) define tourism as ranging from day trips within one’s own locality to long-haul package holidays to the other side of the world, always involving a sense of __________ or visit. Answer: movement

10.                    Some definitions of tourism emphasize its role as an economic __________, while others focus on psychological benefits and motivations. Answer: activity

11.                    According to Smith (1989), tourism can be defined in terms of __________. Answer: motivations

12.                    The British Tourist Authority’s definition of tourism encompasses movement for __________ as well as day visits and excursions. Answer: all purposes

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13.                    Including day trips in the definition of tourism introduces further definitional issues of what constitutes such a __________. Answer: trip

14.                    The extent to which characteristics and constraints are included in definitions of tourism is linked to different __________ and motives. Answer: emphases

15.                    According to the provided text, tourism definitions have evolved to become more __________ and inclusive in recent times. Answer: inclusive

 

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Conceptualizing the sports tourist


According to Standeven and De Knop, sport tourism involves all forms of __________ involvement in sporting activity, away from home and work locality.

Answer: active and passive

 

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The definition of sport tourism as merely identifying tourist activity involving sport lacks __________ value.

Answer: explanatory

 

Instead of combining two separate activities, one approach is to define tourism in terms of __________.

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Answer: sport

 

Core characteristics of tourism include temporary movement of people to destinations away from their __________ environment.

Answer: home

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Sport tourism involves the interaction of activity, people, and __________.

Answer: place

 

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According to Leiper, tourism can be defined in terms of firms, organizations, and facilities intended to serve the specific needs of __________.

Answer: tourists

 

The motives of tourists can be combined with those of the __________ person in the context of sports tourism.

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Answer: sports

 

Tourism involves the activities undertaken during a stay and the facilities created to cater to __________ needs.

Answer: their

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Sport tourism is viewed as a social, economic, and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique __________ of activity, people, and place.

Answer: interaction

 

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Sport tourism involves travel away from home and work __________.

Answer: locality

 

 Standeven and De Knop’s definition of sport tourism encompasses both __________ and organized participation in sporting activities.

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Answer: casual

 

According to Mathieson and Wall, tourism involves the temporary movement of people to __________ destinations.

Answer: away-from-home

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The tourist industry is organized to serve the specific needs and wants of __________.

Answer: tourists

 

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Some definitions of tourism view it as an industry related to providing __________ for tourists.

Answer: facilities

 

 Sport tourism involves interactions between activity, people, and __________.

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Answer: place

 

 

Sports tourism places

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1.    The essential characteristic of sport is that it involves some ________. Answer: active pursuit

2.    Sports often require specific resources, which may include particular ________ or specific facilities. Answer: environments

3.    Facilities for activities like skiing or rock-climbing are ________ widespread. Answer: less

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4.    Football at a Premier League stadium offers a different experience compared to playing in the ________. Answer: local park

5.    Cycling through scenic national park landscapes contrasts with cycling along ________. Answer: busy streets

6.    Sports participation may require travel, especially to destinations ________ from home. Answer: away

7.    The Clawson model categorizes areas on a continuum from user-orientated to ________. Answer: resource-based

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8.    User-orientated areas often have small space demands and may include resources like urban parks and ________. Answer: playgrounds

9.    Resource-based areas emphasize the quality of the physical resource and often involve large land units and ________ locations. Answer: remote

10.                    Intermediate areas are located between user-orientated and resource-based areas, often within ________ drive from potential users. Answer: one or two hours’

11.                    Sport is considered a cultural form, as highlighted by writers such as Bourdieu and ________. Answer: Hargreaves

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12.                    Sport is a cultural experience of physical activity, and tourism is a cultural experience of ________. Answer: place

13.                    Sports tourism often involves traveling to locations that offer higher-quality resources not readily available in one’s ________. Answer: immediate neighborhood

14.                    Sport at competitive or elite levels may require higher-quality resources, which can be found in certain ________. Answer: locations

15.                    Some high-quality sports resources are located in urban centers, characterized by purpose-built features designed specifically for sport, driven by economic and ________ factors. Answer: social and political

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16.                    The quality and perception of resources, including sports environments, are linked to ________ issues. Answer: cultural

17.                    Many people choose to travel elsewhere to participate in sports due to the ambience of the place, such as better ________ or a more scenic landscape. Answer: climate

18.                    Urry suggests that certain sports gain significance when played against a distinctive ________. Answer: visual backcloth

19.                    Cyclists may prefer to ride through rural areas instead of urban ones because of the distinctive ________. Answer: backdrop

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20.                    Sports tourism places can be identified based on quality issues and locational factors, including ski resorts, outdoor pursuits environments, major cities hosting megasporting events, and ________. Answer: sports camps

 

The organization of sports tourism

 


In sports tourism, one of the well-known activities is winter sports, especially ________, which is enjoyed by different age groups.

Answer: skiing

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Winter sports holidays often involve the movement of people to specific mountain locations with infrastructure like hotels, chalets, chair lifts, and ski runs, making it a ________ industry.

Answer: well-organized

 

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Winter sports holidays are primarily organized by major travel companies, but smaller businesses specializing in winter sports holidays are also ________.

Answer: important

Besides skiing, sports tourism includes holiday courses in activities such as sailing, gliding, riding, golf, diving, cycling, mountaineering, and ________.

Answer: surfing

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Multiple sports activity holidays offer a variety of sports at a single location and are exemplified by sports camps and luxury club-formula camps like ________ and Center Parcs.

Answer: Club Med

 

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Some hotels promote their sports facilities in travel brochures to attract sports enthusiasts, contributing to the growth of ________.

Answer: sports tourism

 

Specific sports travel companies fall into two categories: those offering tailored sports training or competition tours for sports teams and those providing all-inclusive packages for ________.

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Answer: travelling sports spectators

 

Travel International Sports, based in California, offers tailored sports tours in various sports, including baseball, gymnastics, hockey, lacrosse, football, and ________.

Answer: water polo

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Companies like Hospitality Worldwide specialize in offering packages to domestic and international sports events, such as rugby union, cricket, and Formula One motor racing, for ________.

Answer: individual travelers

 

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International Sports Tours in Australia caters to both sports team tours and traveling sports spectators in various sports, including football, rugby union, cricket, triathlon, and ________.

Answer: netball

 

Understanding the way sports tourism providers contribute to the organization of sports tourism links people with places and provides for their activities, bridging the gap between ________ and sports tourists’ motivations.

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Answer: place

 

Winter sports holidays involve the movement of people from their homes to specific mountain locations with infrastructure like hotels, chalets, and ski runs, making it a ________ industry.

Answer: lucrative

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Multiple sports activity holidays offer a variety of sports at one location, with examples including sports camps and luxury club-formula camps like ________.

Answer: Center Parcs

 

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Companies like Hospitality Worldwide specialize in offering packages to various domestic and international sports events, such as rugby union, cricket, and Formula One motor racing, for ________.

 

Answer: sports spectators

 

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International Sports Tours in Australia caters to both sports team tours and traveling sports spectators in various sports, including football, rugby union, cricket, triathlon, and ________.

Answer: netball

 

 

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Motives of sports tourists

1.    People’s motives for participating in sport are ________ and varied. Answer: many

2.    Motivation for sports participation includes psychological, social, and ________ perspectives. Answer: philosophical

3.    Some motives related to sport are competitiveness, a desire to win, and the testing of one’s ________. Answer: abilities

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4.    Tourism motivators, such as physical, interpersonal, and status and prestige, also have relevance to ________. Answer: sport

5.    The desire for health, fitness, and general well-being is a common motivation in both sport and ________. Answer: tourism

6.    A feeling of well-being and pleasure satisfaction is often associated with the ‘________ principle.’ Answer: pleasure

7.    The concept of escapism is an important influence on both tourism and ________. Answer: sport

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8.    The pursuit of rewards, including tangible and intangible ones, is related to ________ in both sport and tourism. Answer: motivation

9.    Some tourists seek to achieve their dreams and fantasies, which is related to ________. Answer: status

10.                    Arousal theory suggests that leisure should be ________ to be psychologically rewarding. Answer: optimally arousing

11.                    Arousal levels in sport can be achieved through competition and the desire for ________ development. Answer: skill

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12.                    Outdoor and adventure activities often achieve optimal arousal levels through the perceived level of ________ involved. Answer: risk

13.                    The perception of control over the level of risk in activities is related to the concept of ‘________ of control.’ Answer: locus

14.                    In tourism, the need for optimal arousal is influenced by the difference between optimum stimulation and ________ stimulation experiences. Answer: lifestyle

15.                    Ritual inversion in tourism suggests that individuals feel released to behave differently from their ________ lives. Answer: everyday

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16.                    Ritual inversion can be a powerful motivating force for those seeking optimal ________. Answer: arousal

17.                    Sports tourism combines activity, people, and ________ to enhance arousal levels. Answer: place

18.                    The combination of physical and status and prestige motivators enhances the desire to take part in activities in ________ places. Answer: interesting

19.                    Achieving social interpersonal goals during sports tourism enhances the ________ experience. Answer: overall

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20.                    Ritual inversion involves a different kind of moral state in which ________ needs come to the fore. Answer: cultural

21.                    Both sport and tourism involve a complex set of ________. Answer: motivations

22.                    Motivations for sports participation include individual characteristics such as interests, needs, goals, and ________. Answer: personality

23.                    The social interaction motive in sport is similar to the desire to meet new people and engage in ________ in tourism. Answer: revelry

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24.                    Goal achievement and the pursuit of rewards are motives common to both sport and ________. Answer: tourism

25.                    The concept of ‘________ principle’ relates to positive affective experiences in both sport and tourism. Answer: pleasure

26.                    Arousal theory emphasizes the need for leisure to be ________ to be psychologically rewarding. Answer: optimally arousing

27.                    Outdoor and adventure activities often achieve optimal arousal levels through the perceived level of ________ involved. Answer: risk

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28.                    The perception of control over the level of risk in activities is related to the concept of ‘________ of control.’ Answer: locus

29.                    Ritual inversion in tourism suggests that individuals feel released to behave differently from their ________ lives. Answer: everyday

30.                    Ritual inversion can be a powerful motivating force for those seeking optimal ________. Answer: arousal

31.                    The combination of physical and status and prestige motivators enhances the desire to take part in activities in ________ places. Answer: interesting

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32.                    Achieving social interpersonal goals during sports tourism enhances the ________ experience. Answer: overall

33.                    Both sport and tourism involve a complex set of ________. Answer: motivations

34.                    Motivations for sports participation include individual characteristics such as interests, needs, goals, and ________. Answer: personality

35.                    The social interaction motive in sport is similar to the desire to meet new people and engage in ________ in tourism. Answer: revelry

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36.                    Goal achievement and the pursuit of rewards are motives common to both sport and ________. Answer: tourism

37.                    The concept of ‘________ principle’ relates to positive affective experiences in both sport and tourism. Answer: pleasure

38.                    Arousal theory emphasizes the need for leisure to be ________ to be psychologically rewarding. Answer: optimally arousing

39.                    Outdoor and adventure activities often achieve optimal arousal levels through the perceived level of ________ involved. Answer: risk

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40.                    The perception of control over the level of risk in activities is related to the concept of ‘________ of control.’ Answer: locus

 

 

 

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